Bipolar disorder is a treatable mental illness marked by extreme changes in mood, thoughts, energy, and behavior. Bipolar disorder is also known for a person extreme changes in moods, mainly—mania (highs) and depression (lows). The change in mood can last for hours, days, weeks, or even months.
Who can get bipolar?
Bipolar Disorder is not contagious. Bipolar disorder affects more than two million adult Americans. It usually begins in late adolescence, often appearing as depression during teen years, although it can start in early childhood or later in life.
An equal number of men and women develop this illness. Bipolar disorder is found among all ages, races, ethnic groups, and social classes.
The illness tends to be hereditary. Bipolar disorder can also negatively affect spouses, partners, family members, friends, and co-workers.
Types of bipolar disorder
Different types of bipolar disorder are determined by patterns and severity of symptoms of highs and lows.
Bipolar I disorder is characterized by one or more manic episodes that last at least a week or require hospitalization. Episodes of depression and hypomania may also occur, along with mixed states (when symptoms of depression and mania or hypomania are present together). Behavior during mania can lead to severe financial, family and social disruption.
Bipolar II disorder is characterized by one or more depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode. Hypomanic episodes have symptoms similar to manic episodes but are less extreme and don’t last as long. However, the person’s behavior is clearly different from the norm to observers.
Cyclothymic disorder is characterized by chronic mood fluctuations that do not reach the level of a full manic or depressive episode. However, symptoms cause significant distress in personal relationships, work or school, and other areas of life when they occur. Although symptoms are relatively mild compared to Bipolar I or Bipolar II, they recur within two months each time. People with cyclothymic disorder may go on to develop a more extreme form of bipolar illness.
Symptoms of bipolar disorder
Most people who have bipolar disorder talk about experiencing “highs” and “lows.” These swings can be severe, ranging from extreme energy to deep despair. The severity of the mood swings and the way they disrupt normal life activities distinguish bipolar mood episodes from ordinary mood changes.
Symptoms of mania:
• Increased physical and mental activity and energy
• Heightened mood, exaggerated optimism, and self-confidence
• Excessive irritability, aggressive behavior
• Decreased need for sleep without experiencing fatigue
• Racing speech, thoughts, and flight of ideas
• Increased sexual drive
• Reckless behavior
Symptoms of depression:
• Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells
• Significant changes in appetite and sleep patterns
• Irritability, anger, worry, agitation, anxiety
• Pessimism, loss of energy, persistent lethargy
• Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
• Inability to concentrate, indecisiveness
• Recurring thoughts of death and suicide
How common is bipolar disorder in children?
Bipolar disorder is more likely to affect the children of parents who have the disorder. When one parent has bipolar disorder, the risk to each child is estimated to be 15–30 percent. When both parents have the disorder, the risk increases to 50–75 percent.
Symptoms may be difficult to recognize in children because they can be mistaken for age-appropriate emotions and behaviors of children and adolescents. Symptoms may appear in a variety of behaviors.
According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, up to one-third of the 3.4 million children with depression in the United States may actually be experiencing the early onset of bipolar disorder.
Treatment for bipolar disorder
Because bipolar disorder can be difficult to treat, it is highly recommended that you consult a psychiatrist or a general practitioner with experience in treating this illness. Treatments may include medication, talk therapy, and support groups.